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PostPosted: Fri 01 Apr 2022 12:56 pm 
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Hi, my grand opus on lenition is moving forward. Here is my section on this. If you see any errors, let me know.
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GGBC accepts lenition of nouns after the verbal nouns only in a handful of common phrases, including ag fáil bháis, ag cur choirce and ag baint mhóna. Previous monographs on lenition after the verbal noun have explored the connection between lenition and the gender of the verbal noun itself, with many verbal nouns ending in -lt and -nt being notionally feminine. In Muskerry Irish, at any rate, there is no clear connection between the form and gender of the verbal noun and the pattern of lenition. As GGBC states, lenition in this case is largely a matter of calcified usage in a number of frequently found phrases. Yet random uses with lenition that don’t appear to be longstanding set phrases are encountered. An example is Dónall Bán Ó Céileachair’s ag foghlaim phaidreacha. Note the following:

Baint: we find in Ua Laoghaire ag baint chasadh as, ag baint chodladh na hoíche dhíom, ag baint choirce, ag baint fhéir, ag baint mhóna, ag baint pholl, ag baint phrátaí. Ó Céileachair adds to this list ag baint fhionnáin. Ag baint sásaimh has no lenition.

Breith: Ua Laoghaire has ag breith bhaochais, ag breith bhreithe, ag breith bhua and ag breith ghreama. Ag breith foghla and ag breith clainne are not given lenition.

Cur: by a long margin, the most common phrase with cur to have lenition is ag cur chogaidh. Although both ag cur cogaidh and ag cur chogaidh are found in Ua Laoghaire’s published works, this phrase occurs at least eight times in his Bible manuscripts as ag cur chogaidh, to the extent that it could be legitimately questioned whether the Canon’s acolytes correctly edited his Irish in those few passages of his published works that have ag cur cogaidh. Not even the semantically related ag cur catha is found with lenition; neither are ag cur buaireamh/ceiste/cruatain/tuairisce. The only other phrase in the Bible that has lenition is ag cur Chríostaithe ó dhícheall a dhéanamh ar mhaitheasaíbh an tsaeil seo do shéanadh agus an bheatha shíoraí do chur in áirithe dhóibh féin (footnote to Numbers 13:33). Ó Céileachair has ag cur chonstaicí.

Déanamh: the only phrase in Ua Laoghaire’s Irish with lenition is ag déanamh bhreithiúntais. Phrases like ag déanamh puíll/buartha/dlí do not have lenition, apart from the single instance in Na cheithre Soísgéil where Gerald O’Nolan used lenition in ag déanamh bhuartha (p16).

Fáil: the only phrase found with lenition on the following noun is ag fáil bháis.

Foghlaim: the only phrase in Ua Laoghaire’s works with lenition is ag foghlaim ghaisce. Ó Céileachair has ag foghlaim phaidreacha. Ag foghlaim Teagasc Críostaí does not have lenition in either man’s works.

Fulag: there is a single instance of ag fulag bháis in Ua Laoghaire’s Bible. Ag fulag péine/tarcaisne/cruatain have no lenition.

Gabháil: the only phrase found with lenition of the following noun in Ua Laoghaire’s Irish is ag gabháil bhaochais. Ag gabháil bóithre/dán/sealbha do not have lenition.

Imirt: ag imirt chártaí is found in Ua Laoghaire’s and Ó Loingsigh’s Irish. Ua Laoghaire has ag imirt chluiche, but ag imirt fichille (a rarer phrase, and also one with an f). Ó Céileachair has ag imirt chleas, but ag imirt bullabaisín.

Ínsint: Ua Laoghaire has ag ínsint bhréag (as does Ó Loingsigh) and ag ínsint mholta.

Labhairt: Ua Laoghaire repeatedly has ag labhairt Gaelainne, without lenition in this phrase—or in any other phrase that includes labhairt.

Lorg: this is only found in Ua Laoghaire’s works and manuscripts with lenition of personal names: ag lorg Chríost, ag lorg Dháivid. Phrases like ag lorg cúnta/fírinne do not have lenition.

Ól: Ua Laoghaire has ag ól fíona, whereas Ó Loingsigh has ag ól fhíona.

Tabhairt: phrases found with lenition in Ua Laoghaire’s works include ag tabhairt bhainne, ag tabhairt bhreithe, ag tabhairt bhuaigh, ag tabhairt mholta. Ag tabhairt breithe and ag tabhairt molta are also found. In the Gospels, Jesus states táim ag tabhairt mh’ anama uaim ar son mo thréada, where m’anam, if parsed as a single word, is lenited as mh’anama.

This is not a complete list, but may be considered to give all of the most common uses. Ó Loingsigh also has ag aireacht bhó, ag aireacht chnuic, ag éileamh chíosa, ag ithe chnámh an eireabaill. Ó Céileachair has ag marú bhradán, ag siúl Thiobrad Árann (explained by this being a proper noun) and ag tarrac chloiche. Ua Laoghaire also has ag bagairt bhreithiúntaisí Dé, ag bailiú bhataí, ag cantainn mholta, ag caoineadh bháis, ag ceangal phunann, ag ceannach bhídh, ag cothú bheithíoch, ag díol bheithíoch, ag díol chaorach, ag díol chíosa, ag diúgadh mh’anama, ag fosaíocht chaorach, ag geallúint bheatha, ag meilt mhine, ag múiscilt bhruíonta, ag sábháil mh’anama, ag tál bhainne cí ar mhac, ag targaireacht bhertha Shamsoin, ag targaireacht bhraighdinis Bhabuloin, ag tispeáint mholta, ag tógáilt bhonn, ag tógaint fhoghla na bhfear. Ua Laoghaire’s second cousin, Diarmuid Ua Laoghaire has ag sábháil fhéir.

We notice the same lenited nouns occurring repeatedly with a number of verbal nouns: bainne, baochas, bás, beithíoch, bua, caora, cíosa, moladh. It is also worth noting the frequency of /v/ in lenition after the verbal nouns: nouns in b- and m- seem to favour lenition. A final point worth noting is that the printed spelling may poorly show the intended pronunciation of Muskerry authors. It may be that a wider range of nouns would attract lenition after the verbal noun, however spelt in published works.


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PostPosted: Fri 01 Apr 2022 6:42 pm 
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I'm curious as to what some of the other references to lenition in verbal nouns you've mentioned are, or what other academic work has been done on the subject.


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PostPosted: Fri 01 Apr 2022 6:46 pm 
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galaxyrocker wrote:
I'm curious as to what some of the other references to lenition in verbal nouns you've mentioned are, or what other academic work has been done on the subject.


There was an article in Éigse many years ago about lenition after the verbal noun in Conemara, where it was connected to the gender of the verbal noun.


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PostPosted: Sun 03 Apr 2022 5:28 pm 
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Galaxyrocker, I was referring to this in Éigse, Vol XIII, Part 1, Earrach 1965:
Séimhiú Thar Éis an Ainmbhriathar Thabharthaí, by Cáit Ní Dhómhnaill (p1-9)


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