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Caolú agus leathnú (a wombat explanation)
http://irishlanguageforum.com/viewtopic.php?f=34&t=837
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Author:  mhwombat [ Sun 25 Mar 2012 9:26 pm ]
Post subject:  Caolú agus leathnú (a wombat explanation)

For a complete list of wombat explanations, see: viewforum.php?f=34

Note: This practice thread assumes you know the difference between broad and slender vowels.

Caolú agus Leathnú

There are situations in Irish where you have to make the final consonant of a word broad or slender. For example, to form the genitive of some nouns you make the final consonant slender; for others, you make the final consonant broad.

In this thread, we're not concerned with when or why we would want to do this to a word; we're just going to learn and practice the technique.

Caolú (Slenderisation)
The most common way to make a final consonant slender is to insert an "i":

bád -> báid

But some vowel combinations require special treatment:

fear -> fir
éan -> éin
iasc -> éisc
fionn -> finn
síol -> síl
bacach -> bacaigh
oifigeach -> oifigigh
beithíoch -> beithigh


Leathnú (Broadening)
The most common way to make a final consonant broad is to remove an "i":

máthair -> máthar

But again, some vowel combinations require special treatment:

greim -> greama
mil -> meala
báicéir -> báicéara
cuid -> coda
feadl -> feadaíola


Don't worry about the final "a" that has been added to some of the words; it's there for reasons that you'll learn when we talk about how to form the genitive.

__________

Now it's time to practice. You've been abducted by Martians, and they have ordered you to make the final consonant of some words slender. You can't imagine why they would want you to do this, but they seem impatient and they have big ray guns, so you decide not to ask. Fortunately, they say you only have to do one of the groups below; they'll get someone else to do the others.

leanbh
féar
cliabh
coileach
leac
Answers (select to view): linbh, fir, cléibh, coiligh, lic, péin

ceart
céad
líon
bacach
pian
Answers (select to view): cirt, céid, lín, bacaigh, péin

neart
léann
míol
gaiscíoch
Answers (select to view): nirt, léinn, míl, gaiscígh

You finish your work for the Martians, and are very relieved when they release you from the force field and return you to your neighbourhood. But before you can make it home, you are abducted again. This time it's Venusians, and they want you to make the final consonant of some words broad. For some bizarre alien reason known only to themselves, they would also like you to add an "a" onto the end of these words. They'll let you go if you do just one of the groups below.

múinteoir
bliain
feoil
dochtúir
fuil
Answers (select to view): múinteora, bliana, feola, dochtúra, fola

baincéir
greim
móin
altóir
muir
Answers (select to view): baincéara, greama, móna, altóra, mara

ImageTo the extent possible under law, Amy de Buitléir has waived all copyright and related or neighboring rights to this work.

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