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PostPosted: Thu 11 Apr 2019 7:16 pm 
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If there is already a thread somewhere on this topic, please feel free to link to it. I'm new :)

I have mostly sailed through my lessons so far. Then we start on question forms. One thing that is making is especially confusing is that up until now Duolingo has focused on only one dialect. Now they are throwing all three at us. I'm not getting it. I've done great until this point and now I am just lost. I have 5 pages of notes on question forms and I still can't get it right. The only thing I seem to understand is when to use a vs atá, meaning you use atá when there is not another verb form present, and I understand that you use them for questions that would be answered with a "ta" form - but that hasn't helped me much. (sorry, can't do accents on this keyboard) I also can't remember which C word to use for which type of question. I have all the charts that show, for example, that who is "ce" and what is "cad", but "what" can be also be "cen" or "ca"....so seriously, I'm LOST. The only ones I can consistently get right are "cen uair" or "cen fath" - those I understand.
I also don't understand when to use "an bhfuil" and all of the commentary of the grammatical tense of "bi" isn't helpful, I need an simple answer. I think it's also confusing because the translation to English isn't direct. For example, we might say "What does...." but in Irish, it is actually a form of "is." I have scoured the internet for resources and I'm not coming up with anything.
And then there are the questions where you don't use a "c" word at all.
Can anyone help? :( I've come too far to give up now.


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PostPosted: Thu 11 Apr 2019 9:01 pm 
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Joined: Sat 03 May 2014 4:01 pm
Posts: 1082
OklahomaLass wrote:
If there is already a thread somewhere on this topic, please feel free to link to it. I'm new :)

I have mostly sailed through my lessons so far. Then we start on question forms. One thing that is making is especially confusing is that up until now Duolingo has focused on only one dialect. Now they are throwing all three at us. I'm not getting it. I've done great until this point and now I am just lost. I have 5 pages of notes on question forms and I still can't get it right. The only thing I seem to understand is when to use a vs atá, meaning you use atá when there is not another verb form present, and I understand that you use them for questions that would be answered with a "ta" form - but that hasn't helped me much. (sorry, can't do accents on this keyboard) I also can't remember which C word to use for which type of question. I have all the charts that show, for example, that who is "ce" and what is "cad", but "what" can be also be "cen" or "ca"....so seriously, I'm LOST. The only ones I can consistently get right are "cen uair" or "cen fath" - those I understand.
I also don't understand when to use "an bhfuil" and all of the commentary of the grammatical tense of "bi" isn't helpful, I need an simple answer. I think it's also confusing because the translation to English isn't direct. For example, we might say "What does...." but in Irish, it is actually a form of "is." I have scoured the internet for resources and I'm not coming up with anything.
And then there are the questions where you don't use a "c" word at all.
Can anyone help? :( I've come too far to give up now.


Tá mé ... = I am ...
An bhfuil mé ... ? = Am I ... ?

An is a question marker. It is followed by a dependent verb form
(in case of this is fuil, eclipsed bhfuil)

I can't explain all uses of c words here.
Could you give examples you have difficulties with?


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PostPosted: Thu 11 Apr 2019 9:17 pm 
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Joined: Thu 15 Sep 2011 12:06 pm
Posts: 2357
Quote:
Ca, Cad, Ce, Cen


cá can mean many things
cad = what? what thing? (it's a pronoun, so it's not followed by a noun)
cé = who? whom? (it's a pronoun, so it's not followed by a noun)
cén= what+noun, which+noun

eg.

cad a rinne tú? = what did you do? (=what thing)
cé a rinne sin? = who did that?
cén geansaí a cheannaigh tú? = What jumper/which jumper did you buy?

Cá is mainly used in set phrases like cá huair (when, litt. what hour/time), and it can also mean "where" when used alone: cá bhfuil sé? = where is he?

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PostPosted: Thu 11 Apr 2019 10:44 pm 
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Joined: Sat 03 May 2014 4:01 pm
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Lughaidh wrote:
Cá is mainly used in set phrases like cá huair (when, litt. what hour/time), and it can also mean "where" when used alone: cá bhfuil sé? = where is he?


There are different kinds of cá.
Cá is difficult because it merges with different kinds of "a", so there's either lenition, eclipsis or (without "a") no change in a following word (except prefixed h).

1) Cá followed by a noun (cá haois = what age)
2) Cá followed by an adjective (cá hard = how high)
3) Cá followed by a prepositional pronoun (cá hair = on what, cá has = out of what, cá leis = with what)
4) Cá merged with "a" = "his": cá mhéad = "what is his amount" = how much (cá + a + méad)
5) Cá merged with "a" = indirect relative particle, meaning "where": Cá bhfuil tú (cá + a + fuil) = Where are you? (lit. prob. "what is it that you are [at/in]")


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PostPosted: Thu 11 Apr 2019 11:56 pm 
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Joined: Thu 15 Sep 2011 12:06 pm
Posts: 2357
Quote:
4) Cá merged with "a" = "his": cá mhéad = "what is his amount" = how much (cá + a + méad)
5) Cá merged with "a" = indirect relative particle, meaning "where": Cá bhfuil tú (cá + a + fuil) = Where are you? (lit. prob. "what is it that you are [at/in]")


Ní rabh an dá rud sin ar eólas agam! Gidh gur nerd gramadaighe mé :mrgreen:
Go rabh maith agad, a chara :good:

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Is fearr Gaeilg na Gaeltaċta ná Gaeilg ar biṫ eile
Agus is í Gaeilg Ġaoṫ Doḃair is binne
:)


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